Monday, March 29, 2010
Monday, March 8, 2010
I will ignore the general question on whether a monetary union can succeed without a political union so that I keep this entry short, but I want to challenge his reading of exchange rates.
Let me start with the areas where I agree with the FT article: Is the Euro getting weaker? Yes, relative to the US dollar. Is this caused by the perception that some of the economic troubles in Greece and other European countries could cause instability in the Euro area? Yes.
Friday, March 5, 2010
Tuesday, March 2, 2010
Their logic of those who believe that the Euro was a bad idea is the following: if today countries such as Spain, Greece or Portugal (or Italy) had their currency, they could have devalued it (or depreciated it) and this would have helped them to get out of the crisis because of the positive effect on exports. They point out to the fact that in recent years some of these countries have lost competitiveness through high inflation and this could be easily corrected with a devaluation while the alternative of deflation (or lower inflation) is more painful.
Their argument is a standard textbook analysis of the costs and benefits of keeping your own currency (where we are looking at just the benefits). This is an argument that I bring up regularly in class when I teach macroeconomics and it is easy to explain to my students. However, one needs to go beyond the theory and what is difficult is to assess whether the logic applies to this case and indeed these benefits outweigh the costs of having your own currency and exchange rate.
My reading of the current situation is that it does not reflect at all on the weaknesses of the Euro zone as a currency area and that if any of those countries had kept their currencies they would be in much more trouble today.
Here is a long list of arguments of why the textbook argument does not apply to this case:
1. This is a global crisis. The current recession is global in nature. While some countries are hurting more than others, this is not an asymmetric shock that is affecting just one country. While the exports of Greece could benefit from devaluation, this would hurt the exports of other countries. While it is true that some countries like Germany have kept a surplus in their current account, it is also true that their exports have collapsed and their GDP has been affected as much or even more than some of those other countries. Why shouldn’t be Germany the one who devalues?
2. Is competitiveness a problem? A potential answer to the question in point #1 above is that Germany does not have the same problems of competitiveness than the Southern European countries. It is Spain, Portugal, Greece the countries that have seen their real exchange rate appreciating because of higher inflation than in Germany. They are the ones that need the correction. This is true but we have to be careful not to use Germany as an example of all other countries. The chart below (from a presentation by Jose Manuel Campa, from the Ministry of Economy and Finance in Spain), Spain has not seen a deterioration of competitiveness relative to France, the second largest economy in the Euro area. It is Germany the one that looks like an outlier.
In addition, inflation was higher in Spain mainly because of the evolution of prices in the non-tradable sector (the one where competitiveness is not an issue). Below is another picture from the same presentation by Jose Manuel Campa where we see that the evolution of unit labor cost in manufacturing in Spain (relative to Germany) are much more moderate.
If this is not reassuring enough we can look at the evolution of Spanish exports (as a share of world exports) during these years, Spain has done better than countries like France or the US and its performance is similar to that of Germany.Yes, Spain had a large current account deficit during these years but it was mainly the result of increasing imports due to the strong expansion in the economy. A phenomenon that we observed in other countries (such as the US) that have a flexible exchange rate.
3. Exchange rates are not a magical tool. If having your own currency is such a powerful tool to deal with crisis like the current one, why is it that countries such as the UK, Sweden or the US are suffering through very deep recessions? Both the UK and Sweden, despite having witnessed a depreciation of their currencies, are also struggling with a deep recession that seems to be lasting as long as in some of the Euro countries. In the case of the US, the currency has moved in the “opposite” direction and appreciated since the beginning of the crisis. The current account has been reduced but mainly because of the collapse in demand that comes from the recession.
4. We cannot forget the costs of having your own currency. While the idea of manipulating the exchange rate to increase exports might seem at times attractive, there is no doubt that if any of the Southern European countries had their own currency today, they would be in a much deeper recession (we can go back to the early 80s in Spain when there was also a banking crisis to see how much the Spanish peseta helped). It would be very likely that these countries had accumulated during the boom years liabilities in foreign currency that now, with a devaluation, they would not be able to pay back. The government of Greece would be facing a much higher interest rate because of exchange rate risk, which would make the probability of default even higher.
Finally, a reminder that one needs a longer perspective to assess the benefits and costs of a monetary union. Yes, countries like Spain are going through a deep recession with very high unemployment rate but partly this is the result of the “excesses” of the previous years. Below is a picture of real GDP that shows the very-high growth rates that Spain enjoyed during the previous years. While it might be the case that there was some loss of competitiveness relative to Germany, the growth rate of Spain remained very high, higher than that of Germany or the UK who had the flexible exchange rate to adjust (if needed). Yes, the current recession will erase some of these gains, but not all of them.